||Abraham Lincoln (1809-'65)
||Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the U.S.A. from 1861 to 1865 and was returned from the Republican Party. He opposed slavery and was a great champion of democracy. He was assassinated in 1865.
||Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
||Franklin was a famous American philosopher and statesman who actively helped in promoting the declaration of independence.
||Acharya Vinoba Bhave
||Born 11 September, 1895 in Gujrat. He was educated at Baroda.Met Gandhiji and joined Sabarmati Ashram in 1916.He was originator of Bhoodan yagna Movement.He received Magsaysay Award in 1969. He received Bharat Ratna award in 1983.
||Was the founding father of Dravida Munnetra Kazhakam (DMK), a political party of South India.DMK obtained absolute majority in the Tamil nadu Legislative Assembly at the elections of 1967 and 1971.
||Has become famous in carrying out research work in the U.S.A. He was awarded Nobel Prize in 1968 in Physiology and Medicine.
||Was President of Congress in 1959. Became Union Minister of Information and Broadcasting in 1964-66. Was Prime Minister of India in 1966-77 and again in 1980-1984.
||Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
||Famous Indian leader and statesman who was the first Prime Minister of India. Author of `The Discovery of India', `Glimpses of World History', etc.
||He was the 3rd President of the U.S.A. and founder of the Republican Party.He helped in drafting the Declaration of Independence.
||Became President of USSR after the death of President Andropov in 1984. President Chernenko died in 1985.
||Martin Luther (1483-1546)
||Martin Luther was a German preacher during the reign of Henry VIII of England. He translated the Bible in German. Founder of reformation movement and Protestantism in Europe.
||He is the first Indian to swim the English Channel. He also swam the Palk Strait, the Gibralter strait and Dardanelles strait.
||Resigned Bombay Provincial Civil Service and joined Non-Cooperation Movement under Gandhiji in 1930.Was Chief Minister of Bombay, 1952-1956, Union Minister in 1956-63. After formation of the Janata Party, was the Prime Minister of India from 1977 to 1979.
||Was born in Yugoslavia in 1910.The Roman Catholienun came to India as a teacher and began organizing schools for slum children in 1948. She has established 100 centres in the country comprising schools,charitable dispensaries, home for lepers, T.B. Patients, unwanted and crippled children. She was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace in 1979, as the first Indian. Was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1980.
||Niels Bohr (1885-1963)
||Niels Bohr was a nuclear physicist of denmark. His pioneering work led to the invention of nuclear fission and atomic bomb. Received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
||Ravishankar is the world-famous artist in sitar.
||The great Indian Mathematician who was famous for his work on Theory of Numbers. He became an F.R.S.in 1918.
||H.G.Wells was a famous author of English novels. His science-based tales are of great appeal all over the world. The famous books written by him are "The Invisible Man","Time Machine" and "The Shape of things to come."
||Abul Fazal (1551-1602)
||Famous Mughal court poet, scholar and councillor of Akbar. His books Akbar-Nama and Ain-i-Akbari throw light on Mughal rule and particularly on the reign of Akbar.
||Abdul Ghaffar Khan
||A great congress leader of the N.W.F.P. and leader of Red Shirts. He is popularly known as `Frontier Gandhi'. He received the Nehru Award for peace and international understanding. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1987.
||Aesop (620-544 B.C.)
||Famous writer of greece. his fables are very instructive and interesting.
||Alexander the Great (356-323 b.C.)
||Became the king of Macedon in Greece in 336 B.C. One of the greatest generals and conquerors of the world.Founded Alexandria and invaded India in 326 B.C. Reached Beas. Died at Babylon.
||The greatest of the Mughal Emperors of India. Founder of a new religion Din-i-Ilahi. He abolished pilgrim tax and Jazia. Took the Empire to its peak in administration.
||Scholar in the court of Alauddin Khilji. Laid the foundation of Urdu poetry. He wrote in Hindi also, known as the "Parrot of India".
||Annie Besant (1846-1933)
||Irish Lady who supported Indian Nationalist Movement. Founder President of Theosophical Society.Was elected President of the Indian National Congress.
||Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
||Greek philosopher,artist,poet and thinker.Disciple of Plato and teacher of Alexander the great.Founder of a famous school of philosophy."The ethics and Poetics" are his famous works.
||Archimedes (287-212 B.C.)
||Greek mathematician,inventor & Scientist.Discovered the principles of the lever and of specific gravity.Invented Archimedean screw.
||Law minister of India,1947-51. Member of the constituent Assembly. chairman of the constitution drafting Committee."Annihilation of Caste" is his famous work.
||Aryabhatta (476-520 A.D.)
||Great Indian astronomer and mathematician.India's first scientific satellite was named after him.Explained the causes of solar and lunar eclipses. Determined the diameter of the earth and the moon. He laid the foundation of algebra and was responsible for pointing out the importance of "Zero".
||Ashoka (273-236 B.C.)
||Indian Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty. Embraced Budhism after the Kalinga War. One of the existing monuments of Ashoka is the Sanchi Stupas. His inscriptions on rocks and pillars are of great historical interest. Famous for sanity of thought, up rightness of character and love of humanity.
||Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1959)
||Politician,Philosopher,poet & saint. First editor of "bande Mataram", Works : Life Divine,EssaysonGita,Basis of Yoga.
||Founder of the Mughal Empire in India. Conquered the throne of Delhi after the first battle of Panipat (1526) against Ibrahim Lodhi. His "Memoirs" hold a high a place in the history of literature.
||Court poet of King Harsha Vardhana. Works : Harshacharita and Kadambari.
||Great mathematician and astronomer of the twelth century. Work `Sidhanta Siromani'.
||Known as the "Man of blood and iron". Founded the German Empire.A great administrator.
||Gautama Buddha (623-543 B.C.)
||Kshtriya prince, son of Suddhodana, the king of Kapilavastu in Nepal. Founder of Buddhism. Developed the philosophy of pessimism.
||Indian Physicist.President,Indian Science Congress, 1951.Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission of India. Thew first Atomic Reactor was completed under hisguidance in 1956 and the second reactor was commissioned in 1960.Was made a fellow of the Royal Society in London in 1941.
||Subhash Chandra Bose (1897- ?
||Indian nationalist and organizer of the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) during the World War II. Was called `Netaji'.Was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1937 and 1938. founder of the political party `Forward Block'.
||Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.)
||Roman Genaral and statesman. Invaded Gaul and Britain. Paved the way for the Roman Empire. Was also an orator, poet and historian.
||Winston Churchill (1877-1965)
||British statesman,soldier and author. Leader of Conservative party. Led Britain as Prime Minister during World War II. Won Nobel Prize for literature in 1953. Famous work :`The Gathering Storm, War Memoris, etc.
||Chanakya (Kautilya) (4th Century B.C.)
||Famous minister of Chandra Gupta Maurya and was responsible for the fall of the Nanda Dynasty. "Arthashastra" is his famous book.It throws light on the then system of government, the revenue system, the art of administration and the duties of the king.
||Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543)
||Polish astronomer who first propounded the astronomical theory that the sun is the centre of the solar system and the earth and other planets revolve round the sun.
||Madame Marie Curie (1867-1934)
||Discovered Radium.Won the Nobel Prize twice (Physics-1903,Chemistry-1911)
||Lord Clive (Robert Clive)(1725-1774)
||Founded the British Empire in india by defeating Seraj-ud-daula at Plassey in 1757. Twice appointed Governor of Bengal (1757-'60) and (1764-'67)
||Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay (1838-1894)
||Bengali novelist. Introduced a rich style in the Bengali language. "Durgeshnandini", "Bishabrika", "Anandamath" are some of his outstanding works.
||American film cartoonist Producer of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck etc. Creator of Disneyland, California.
||Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883)
||Great hindu reformer.Founder of the `Arya Samaj (1875). Fought against untouchability, preached widow re-marriage, supported women's education.
||Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
||American inventor. Invented telephone transmitter, megaphone, phonograph, incandescent bulb, cinematograph, etc.
||Euclid (330-269 B.C.)
||Greek mathematician and author of elements of Germany.
||The first Buddhist pilgrim from China who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II(`Vikramaditya') to collect Buddhist relics and sacred literature. he stayed in india from 401 to 410 A.D.
||Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
||British scientist who founded the science of electromagnetism. discovered the laws of Electrolysis.
||Epic poet of Persia. He was a court poet of sultan Mahmud of Gazni. His `Shah-nama' contains 60,600verses describingthe history of Persia.
||Italian mathematician and astronomer. Invented telescope (1609) and the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter.(1564-1642)
||Led `Satyagraha' movement in south Africa. Associated with many movements during the struggle for independence of India viz., Non-co-operation movement in 1920, Salt Satyagraha, Quit India in 1942. His main principles were non-violence and truth. He was called the `Father of the Nation'. His autobiography `My Experiments with Truth' is world-famous.
||Hindu King of India (606-647 A.D.). The account of his reign is available from two sources : Hiuen Tsand, a Chinese traveller, and Bana Bhatt, the famous Sanskrit poet. Nalanda University flourished during his time.
||Famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who visited India during the reign of King Harsha, stayed in India from 629 to 644 A.D. and learnt Buddhist scriptures at Nalanda University. He has left interesting records of the conditions in India at that time.
||German dictator and founder of National socialism. The Chancellor of Germany since 1933 and Leader of Reich since 1934. Started a Fascist movement. Involved Germany into the World War II and was defeated in 1945. Author of `Mein Kampf'.
||Organised the revolutionary rationalist party of Indo-China against French rule. Led the struggle for Vietnam's independence during World War II. As President of North Vietnam he defied the USA for the unification of Vietnam, Great communist leader.
||Epic figure in classic sanskrit literature. Works :`Shakuntala', `Meghduta',`Kumar Sambhava' etc. Flourished in the time of Vikramaditya.
||One of the greatest expoexponents of Bhakti Movement - a socio-religious movement spread in the Middle ages which aimed at liberalising the religious practices of Hindus. Disciple of Ramanand. Kabir believed in the unity of God and equality of all religions.
||Leader of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Head of the Soviet Government from 1917 to 1924.
||Leonardo da Vinci
||Italian painter, sculptor, architect, scientist and musician. Famous paintings are `The Last Supper' and `Mona Lisa'.
||Born in the 6th century B.C. Jainism which is a religious sect of Hinduism was strengthened by him. Apostle of non-violence. Prescribed code of penance for his followers. The religion did not spread outside India.
||Was Greek ambassador to Chandra Gupta Maurya's Court sent by seleucus. His book `Indika' is a source of information about the state of India at that time.
||Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party 1936-59. First Chairman of the Central Government of the People's Republic of China., 1949-59. Organised the Red Guards to start the Cultural Revolution.
||Karl Marx (1818-83)
||German philosopher and socialist. Author of `Communist Manifesto' and `Das Kapital'. Communism is based on his teachings.
||Italian painter, sculptor, architect and poet who did much to beautify the churches of Rome and Florence by his genius.
||Marco Polo (1256-1323)
||Famous Venetian traveller and explorer. The first European to visit china. Made journeys through China, India and other Eastern countries and published a record of his wanderings.
||Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
||French Emperor and General. Conquered most of Europe. Was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 and died in exile at St.Helena's Island.
||Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
||British nurse and hospital reformer. Organised a nursing service during the Crimean War (1854-56), which reformed the age-old system in hospitals. Her system was later adopted throughout the world. Known as `The Lady with the Lamp.'
||Spanish painter and sculptor.Founded cubist school of painting. `Guernica' is his civil war painting.
||Maharana Pratap (1540-97)
||Raiput chief who refused to acknowledge Akbar's overlordship. Defeated at Haldighat in 1576. Reconquered the greater part of his possessions.
||Ramkrishna Paramhanssa (1833-1886)
||Indian religious saint and preceptor of Swami Vivekanand.
||President of the USA from 1933 till his death, being the first American to be elected for more than two terms. He met the economic crisis of 1933 with a policy for a `New Deal'.
||The Greatest poet and dramatist of england. Author of several plays such as `Julius Caesar', `Macbeth', `Romeo and Juliet', `Hamlet', `The Merchant of Venice', `Antony and Cleopatra, etc.
||Socrates (463-399 B.C.)
||Greek Philosopher and intellectual leader. Plato was his pupil. He was sentenced to death on charges of impiety and corrupting the young.
||Soviet Statesman. played an important part in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Became the outstanding leader of Russia after the death of Lenin in 1924. Introduced in 1929 the famous Five Year Plan to build new Russia. General Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, 1924-41.
||George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
||Irish dramatist, socialist, writer and journalist. His famous plays are `Pleasant and Unpleasant', `Man and Superman',`Mrs.Warren's Profession'.
||Swami Vivekanand (1863-1902)
||A great Hindu Saint and religious leader. His original name was Narendranath Datta. Follower of Ramkrishna Paramhansa. Led the Vedanta movement. Founded Ramkrishna Mission at Belur (West Bengal). Among his books `Janam Yoga', `Bhakti Yoga' and `Karma Yoga' are best known.
||Nationalist leader from Maharashtra. Leader of the Hindu Mahasabha. Author of `Indian War of Independence'.
||Shankaracharya (Born 788 A.D.)
||A great scholar,philosopher and religious teacher. Countered the influence of Buddhism and Jainism. Wrote authoritative commentaries on the Upanishadas.
||Brave general and capable administrator. Fought successfully many battles against Aurangzeb's army and was instrumental in shattering the structure of Mughal Empire in India. Made the Marathas a strong nation. Was crowned king in 1674 at Raigarh.
||The Mughal Emperor (1628-58). Built Taj Mahal at Agra in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Lal Quila and Jama Masjid in Delhi were also built in his time.
||Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
||Great Indian poet,novelist,dramatist,composer,philosopher,educationist,artist and humanist. Won Noble Prize for literature in 1913. Works : `Gitanjali', `Gora', `Chitra',`Wreck', `Post Office', `Hungry Stones', etc. Founded the international university Visva-Bharti at Shantiniketan (W.B.)
||Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
||One of the pioneers of the Indian freedom movement. Started two newspapers, the `Kesari' in Marathi and the `Maratha' in English. He declared `Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it'. Wrote a commentary on the Gita, the `Gita Rahasya'.
||Great exponent of Indian classical music. He was one of the `Nau Rattans' in the court of Akbar.
||Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
||Russian writer,philosopher,social reformer and religious teacher. His chief novels are `War and Peace', `Anna Karenina', `Resurrection', etc.
||Marshal Tito (1892-1980)
||Yugoslav leader. Called the Neutral Nations Conference at Belgrade in 1961. A firm believer in non-alignment.
||Vasco da Gama
||A portuguese Sailor, who in 1498, rounded the Cape of Good hope and succeeded in reaching the port of Calicut in south India.
||George Washington (1732-99)
||Commander-in-Chief of the American army during the American War of Independence (1775-83). First President of the Republic of USA elected in 1789; re-elected in 1793.
||Murlidhar Devidas Amte
||Popularly known as Baba Amte, an IndianLawyer who has made the lives of thousands of lepers and other social outcastes productive and respectable. Was awarded the 1985 Magsaysay award for public service. `Anandwan' is the first of the settlements established by him for lepers and other physically handicapped people.
||Martin Luther King (1929-68)
||U.S. negro civil rights leader. It was due to his efforts that the U.S. Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964.Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.